Puppet Theatre. When and where was he born?
Puppet Theater has survived millennia, dozens of historical structures. The first mention of puppet art associated with the festivities in Egypt. Women went from village to village with songs. They carried small statuettes in their hands and set them in motion with the help of ropes. Such dolls are found in Syria, Latin America. Archaeological excavations helped to see a picture of the most ancient festival in the 16th century BC.
The Greek tradition extends to ancient Rome. Almost every house in Rome had its own collection of dolls. Someone had the idea to depict the world using a box in which there is no front wall and which is blocked in half horizontally. Puppet artists roamed the boxes across Europe. They showed the story of the birth of Christ and the story of King Herod.
For the theater is characterized by an appeal to folklore. Over time, the scenery also appeared, they designated the scene of action. But his admiration of the properties of a reviving object was unchanged. The dolls that have come down to us were notable for their grace, beauty of decoration and ingenuity.
The toy “flying dove” – the prototype of the future aircraft – has reached us. This amazing figure amazes with its fine work. The first puppet shows were preserved in people’s memory as a form of magic and spells. It was believed that dead people have magical magic and can provide protection and assistance to the living.
To attract the spirits of the dead, figures were made into which they supposedly could move. The souls of the dead themselves are represented by many nations as shadows. Thus arose one of the original types of theatrical spectacle – the shadow theater. Since ancient times, puppet theaters have had typical images. But next to them appeared the heroes of “momentary”. Along with the characters of fables, legends, characters of folklore and ancient literature, popular figures, “portrait” dolls acted. It is no coincidence that the puppet theater eventually turned into a sort of “pantry”, a treasury of types of life and many plots.
Scientists from Italy, Romania and Germany proved that the plots of “King Lear”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “Faust” and many others were known long before Shakespeare and Goethe in the puppets’ ideas. Legends have told us a lot of stories of Chinese puppets, whom the emperors punished for “devilish art.”
It was hard for those who worked in Europe. Puppets were sent to prisons, burned at the stake. But the puppet theater survived and became immortal. So, the Italians consider Pulcinella their hero. Invented at the time of the Renaissance, the hero speaks of human vices and morals today. He was the joy of folk carnivals, fun folk games.
After two hundred and three hundred years, this hero will appear in London and Paris, Prague and Moscow. And after several generations, Polichinel – as they began to be called in France – will become the favorite hero of children and adults. The French and today talk about Polichinela with pleasure. His huge eyes look now mischievously, now merrily, now angrily, now indignantly. It all depends on how you turn the doll.
And who does not know Petrushka beloved by all? He quickly became a favorite of the people. His tricks were to the liking of the Russian people. Did you know that Konstantin Sergeyevich Stanislavsky had his own puppet theater at home? Many cultural figures created works for the puppeteers. In fifteen plays of Shakespeare, the puppets or the puppet theater are mentioned. Traditional puppet theater exists in almost all countries of the world. And now, as if 100 – 200 years ago, puppet theater artists are striving to amuse their spectators, to joke with them. There are theaters where they make fun of careless people, jokes can be evil. In the thirties and forties, there were changes in the European puppet theater. A new system of working with a doll was born.
It happened for the first time here, in the Central Puppet Theater under the direction of S. V. Obraztsov. They got up close. Man and puppet doll. This theater was opened in 1931. Sergei Vladimirovich Obraztsov, the famous Soviet puppeteer, worked with the “hand puppet”, which is worn on the arm. He was known as an opera, and later as a dramatic actor. But gradually his hobby for a doll grew into a profession. He made a little black doll himself. I tried to sing a romance with her. Genuine glory made him a Venus doll. “Candidate of Volunteer Sciences, lecturer on all issues.”
Dolls do a parody of bad performers. And in the parody number “Come back, I will forgive everything” the doll was put on the artist’s head, and Obraztsov’s living hands became her hands. He then wrung his hands, then pulled the necklace or straightened his puppet hairstyle. In addition, Sergei Vladimirovich was an excellent storyteller and a charming man. Everyone who knew him said that it was a pleasure to listen to him. Not a single concert in the country has been held for many years without the participation of actors from the Obraztsov Theater. Actors, leaving home, say goodbye to dolls till the morning. No actor knows what happens to her at night.
Puppeteers are weird people. A reasonable and normal person is sure that the doll is made of …