Who is who in the textile range of folk rituals and coastal dolls?
It is possible to classify dolls according to manufacturing techniques (winding-twists, lumps, from fabric squares, etc.). It is possible according to the rites (for family, calendar, other). But, in my opinion, it is better to use the method of grouping by function or, if you wish, by magic puppet force. So much more romantic. I would even say – fabulous.
Experts identify four main functions: producing, protective, cleansing and replacing. There are a lot of dolls in each functional group, so we will consider only some of the most interesting “representatives”. The dolls endowed with the magic-producing Ten-Pen (also called the Multi-Pen) help its owner cope with large volumes of any work. Such dolls as a wedding gift were given to the brides by the bridesmaid so that the young hostesses would have affairs to argue.
Grain (another name – Zernushka) – in her cloth little body poured grain after harvest, and then a bellied pupa was placed on granary chests so that the harvest would be even richer. A doll-jug with a pretty penny in a voluminous little body-bag was given for Christmas. It was believed that it attracts wealth to the house.
Not only money was piled into the Kubushka, but also stuffed it with fragrant herbs. You remember, you will touch such a doll plump-herbalist, and the forest-field scent will spill over the hut. Dolls-Kapustok were made by young ladies for marriage and put up in the windows, signaling about the readiness for marriage – they say, it’s time to send matchmakers.
Plus, Kapuska was supposed to attract the most enviable suitors to the house. Day and Night – two pupae of different colors (black and white, later blue and white) tied with one rope, hung from the ceiling. They organized family life and, at the same time, the inner world of their owners. Dolls that can protect Probably the most famous amulet is the Tryasovitsa sisters, thirteen Lihodeek (Likhomanok) pupae. They were evenly lined up on a wall or installed in a row on a furnace tube.
The dolls personified the heroic daughters, the spirits of diseases in the image of women with different names (one of the many options available: Tryayei, Otpey, Ogling, Avvarausha, Puhleya, Zhelteya, Stareya, Karkusha, Nemey, Aveya, Glukheya, Snore and elder sister Kumokha). It was believed that, after seeing in the house of his mini-twin, an uninvited disease moved into the doll, and not into a person. The Kuvadka (or Kuvatka) is one of the simplest coastal pupae.
She was done on the eve of the child’s birth (in two weeks at most) and hung out in a hut to divert the attention of evil spirits from the mother and baby. Later, the dolls were laid in the crib. Lumps and protected newborns, and served as their first toys. Veps doll (Feed) – the image of a married woman, a symbol of piety and wealth.
This rag doll was attached with a volume rag chest – so that the children were always full and healthy. She “warmed” a place in the crib before the birth of the child. After birth – hung over the headboard, as a guard against damage and the evil eye. When the baby grew up, they allowed him to play with this doll. Bereginya with arms spread wide-arms was also hung at the head of the bed (or placed somewhere in a hut, above the level of human heads). She defended, took care of her family from quarrels, diseases and hardships. The Insomnia Doll was intended for children suffering from sleep disorders, she was placed in the bed of a non-sleeping child. When making a sentence, the sentence was considered obligatory: “Sleepless insomnia, do not play with my child, but play with this doll” (variants are possible, of course).
It is interesting that the raghead of Insomnia was often filled with fragrant soothing herbs. Dolls with cleansing power The pupa of the same name (Cleansing) helped to get rid of the “bad” energy in the house. For example, after a family quarrel, a woman threw open windows and doors, took a doll in her hands and, using her as a symbolic broom, swept all the negative away from the hut. Kupavka is a ritual one-day doll with obligatory multi-colored ribbons on stick-sticks. It was made before the start of the swimming season, on holidays Agrafena Kupalitsy and Ivan Kupala were floated on water. After the ritual, everyone was allowed to splash and dive in the reservoirs as much as they please. Martinics are a pair of white (winter) and red (summer) pupae. Used in the rite of invoking spring.
Martinics were hung out on tree branches in order to attract and bring on the onset of the warm season. Maslenitsa is a huge doll made of wood and straw, always mumbled into textile clothes. It was made at the end of winter during Shrovetide week and burned immediately after production. Burning, the doll at the same time turned into ashes and ashes all the spiritual negative that people have accumulated over the long winter. The cuckoo was a pupa, together with which twelve-year-old adolescent girls entered the age of mature girlhood, declared themselves girls. The ceremony was held before the Trinity – they went far into the woods, sang songs there, led round dances, and also symbolically buried the cuckoo dolls.